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Apple announces €1bn Munich semiconductor R D facility focused on wireless comms
Thursday, 11 March 2021 06:59

HTTP/2 200 date: Thu, 11 Mar 2021 13:00:14 GMT content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 link: ; rel=preload; as=script;,/145da36f88e80fae2e0baf1e0bb02e6933f2b2b0/javascript/_.js>; rel=preload; as=script;,/default/7a6c78cd718671c7502fc89b087c5e2ff615bd6d/scaffolding.css>; rel=preload; as=style;,/default/7a6c78cd718671c7502fc89b087c5e2ff615bd6d/design.css>; rel=preload; as=style;,/5e49edbd1875f214e0decae1e24b200066780fa8/style/fonts/arimo/arimo-700.latin.woff2>; rel=preload; as=font; crossorigin;,/5e49edbd1875f214e0decae1e24b200066780fa8/style/fonts/arimo/arimo-400.latin.woff2>; rel=preload; as=font; crossorigin; cache-control: max-age=0 expires: Thu, 11 Mar 2021 13:00:14 GMT vary: Accept-Encoding x-reg-bofh: pfy03us x-clacks-overhead: GNU Terry Pratchett, Lester Haines cf-cache-status: DYNAMIC cf-request-id: 08c2f8a8560000df8572a69000000001 expect-ct: max-age=604800, report-uri="https://report-uri.cloudflare.com/cdn-cgi/beacon/expect-ct" server: cloudflare cf-ray: 62e4f6ed5e6bdf85-MEL Apple announces €1bn Munich semiconductor R&D facility focused on wireless comms • The Register

Claims campus will be home to 'Europe's largest mobile technologies engineering team'


Apple today announced plans to invest €1bn in a new European Silicon Design Centre in Munich, Germany.

With an estimated opening date of late 2022, the 33,000m2 facility will serve as Cupertino's largest wireless communications R&D facility, with a heavy emphasis placed on developing proprietary 5G chippery.

In a blog post, Apple said the facility will house "Europe's largest mobile technologies engineering team."

It's a bold claim. Nokia's Oulu campus, which is home to its 5G radio design team, has a couple of thousand workers – although these are spread across manufacturing and research.

Still, even if it's not the greatest thing since sliced laugenbrötchen, it does allow Apple to consolidate much of its operations in the Bavarian capital, ongoing since 1981. In recent years, Apple's ranks have swelled following a spate of buyouts. The most notable is its $1bn acquisition of Intel's modem development wing in 2019, itself snatched from German semiconductor firm Infineon in 2011.

Apple already develops its iDevice and Macintosh processors in-house, with the fab work contracted out to TSMC. Despite that, it has long relied on Qualcomm for cellular modems, with the iPhone 12 series using the Snapdragon X55 5G chip. Moving this work in-house would mean less money spent externally (some estimates suggest Qualcomm obtains 11 per cent of its revenue from Apple), while giving Cupertino a level of control it otherwise wouldn't enjoy.

In 2018, Apple spent $600m on an IP and asset transfer with Dialog Semiconductor. This deal included an acquihire of some 300 workers, with two of the four teams based in Germany. Of these, one is situated in Neuaubing, a town within spitting distance of Munich. A major focus of Dialog's work has been in power management, and 5G mobile chips are notoriously power-hungry.

Dialog Semiconductor has since agreed to a $6bn acquisition with Japanese chipmaker Renesas Electronics, with the deal expected to close later this year.

Munich also serves as home to Metaio, an augmented-reality software maker acquired by Apple in 2015 for an undisclosed price. Although far removed from the world of low-level semiconductor design, Metaio does fit into Apple's long-term interest in augmented and mixed-reality computing, manifested in technologies like ARKit.

Apple announces €1bn Munich semiconductor R D facility focused on wireless comms

Brit chip designer Dialog Semi confirms 'advanced discussions' regarding purchase by Japan’s Renesas

READ MORE

This may translate into physical products in the coming decade. Earlier this month, Ming Chi-Kuo, a well-connected Apple analyst, predicted the release of several AR-centric wearables in the coming years, including a HoloLens-style headset and some eyewear reminiscent of the ill-fated Google Glass. Should this prediction come to pass, they'll almost certainly use some form of custom silicon.

Speaking of Apple's reported movements: BMW's global headquarters are also situated in Munich, where it has a manufacturing line. Since 2014, Apple has reportedly been working on a car project or, at the very least, car-related technologies like autonomous mobility and battery tech.

Like most Valley tech companies, Apple has a tendency to shower its employees with perks, including boozy after-work events and subsidised meals. While there's no word on what perks it may offer its Munich-based staffers, the company was eager to tout the environmental credentials of its upcoming facility, which will have LEED Gold certification and run entirely on renewable energy.

This development comes as the European Union attempts to strengthen its share of the global semiconductor industry. And while the lion's share of the focus has been spent on attracting contract manufacturers, like Samsung and TSMC, it's unlikely to sniff at a new R&D facility from one of the most voracious consumers of small-node semiconductors in the world. ®


State of Maine threatens to tear up Workday HR contract and request $21m refund if it cannot remedy concerns Also: SaaS provider completes acquisition of employee feedback platform Peakon

The northeastern US state of Maine is threatening to cancel a contract with enterprise SaaS provider Workday and request a $21m refund.

The project, which was due to go live in the spring of 2020, was designed to overhaul the state government's ageing HR and payroll systems.

Kelsey Goldsmith, a spokeswoman for the Department of Administration and Financial Affairs, told a local news outlet the state had employed independent experts to assess the Workday implementation. It then went to the vendor with a list of concerns.

After learning about the requests from its customers, Workday paused work on the project from 12 February. The state then sent a letter to Workday requesting a cause of action to remedy the issue within 30 days. If Workday was unable to provide a remedy, Maine would terminate the contract and seek a return of funds from Workday totalling more than $21m, the spokeswoman said.

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License to thrill: Ahead of v13.0, the FreeBSD team talks about Linux and the completed toolchain project that changes everything 'For many ... vendors, the BSD license is very important compared to the GPL'

It's not as well known as Linux, but FreeBSD has plenty of hardcore fans. In a wide-ranging chat covering licensing, architectures including RISC-V, and a development model that's free of a "dictator", The Reg spoke to members of the project about new release features and more.

FreeBSD 13.0 has just reached release candidate 1 and is scheduled to come out at the end of March – with key new features including a complete LLVM toolchain, faster networking, and improved ZFS file system.

Major new releases come every two years or so: 12.0 was pushed out in December 2018, and 12.2 in October 2020. We spoke to kernel developer John Baldwin and Ed Maste, who is a FreeBSD committer and director of Project Development for the FreeBSD Foundation.

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US newspaper's 'Biden will hack Russia' claim: A good way to reassure Putin you'll leave him alone Titbit for domestic consumption looks darn silly from abroad

Opinion The US government might have subtly signalled that it likely won't hack Russia this month – by telling credulous journalists it has a "clandestine" plan to, er, launch an attack against its rival before April.

The counterintuitive move came over the weekend when The New York Times published a story setting out how "over the next three weeks… a series of clandestine operations" will take place "across Russian networks" with the intention of secretly getting the attention of Vladimir Putin and his intelligence services.

Set against the backdrop of the SolarWinds and FireEye hack, and the most recent Hafnium attacks against Microsoft Exchange servers, it isn't hard to imagine presidential PR advisors wanting to give the impression that cyber warfare is their boss's top priority.

Yet the effect of those words is to warn Russia that an attack of some sort is on its way, and it'll be soon, thus putting Vlad and chums on high alert. Clearly this is not how cyber warfare is going to be waged, any more than the US Air Force might phone ISIS and warn them of a missile strike on their leader's compound next Tuesday.

Continue reading
Sign of the primes: Linux Foundation serves up free code-signing service Cryptographic software assurance backed by Google, Red Hat, Purdue U

The Linux Foundation, with the support of Google, Red Hat, and Purdue University, is launching a service called sigstore to help developers sign the code they release.

Signing code involves associating a cryptographic signature with a specific digital artifact – release files, container images, and binaries – so that the person using the software can check the code's signature to verify that the release is authentic and hasn't been altered by someone along the way.

"Sigstore enables all open source communities to sign their software and combines provenance, integrity and discoverability to create a transparent and auditable software supply chain," said Luke Hinds, security engineering lead in Red Hat's office of the CTO, in a statement.

Sigstore aims to provide that service in a way that makes the process easier for developers, so they don't have to deal with the key management issues that arise when signing code on one's own or as part of a project with multiple maintainers.

Continue reading
A Code War has replaced The Cold War. And right now we’re losing it There’s always someone to blame for bad infosec, but never a willingness to make meaningful change

Column Remember the Cold War? For me, growing up in America meant living under the permanent, intangible threat of sudden vaporisation by thermonuclear attack. It added a piquant pointlessness to everything. Ashes, ashes, all burn down.

Yet the world stubbornly refused to end. Communism collapsed, Western neoliberal democracy seemed triumphant.

Then just as we entered a phase of peace and prosperity, the internet came along and ruined everything.

It took some time; Rome was not destroyed in a day. And we should have seen it coming. A full year before the Berlin Wall came down, the Morris Internet Worm took the then-tiny internet down with an exploit drawn from weaknesses in sendmail, finger and remote shell. In 1989, Robert Tappan Morris was arrested and prosecuted under the then brand-new Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.

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Talk about a Blue Monday: OVH outlines recovery plan as French data centres smoulder Servers affected include those used by ESA, Villarreal football club, and some misused by malware miscreants

Customers of European cloud hosting provider OVH have been told it plans to restart three data centres on its French campus in Strasbourg next week, following a massive fire on site this morning that destroyed one bit barn.

The SBG1 and SBG4 data centres are scheduled to reopen by Monday 15 March and the SBG3 DC by Friday next week. SBG2 was wiped out by the blaze but fortunately no one was hurt in the incident.

The fire caused serious disruption across European websites, with, according to Netcraft, "3.6 million websites across 464,000 distinct domains... taken offline."

Power infrastructure supplying the DCs on the site appears to have been damaged, with OVH founder and chairman Octave Klaba outlining a recovery plan that he estimated would take at least the next seven days to implement.

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Microsoft settles £200,000+ claims against tech support scammers who ran global ripoff from cottage in Surrey Bare-faced cheek of Barewire using our trademarks, say Redmond legal eagles

A multinational tech support scam was operated out of a rural Surrey cottage for years before its Indian call centre was rumbled and gave the game away to Microsoft, the High Court has heard.

Redmond has settled a £200,000+ claim against Barewire Ltd and its directors, Neil Purnell and Toni Whittingham, after accusing them of offering "sham technical support services" that abused Microsoft's trademarked logos to pass as a genuine, legitimate enterprise.

The amount of the actual settlement is not known , although Microsoft described it as "significant."

"Members of the public have contacted Microsoft on hundreds of occasions making allegations that Barewire has engaged in deceptive business practices in connection with the supply of sham technical support services," said Microsoft in particulars of claim [PDF] filed with the High Court in December 2020, following a scam that it alleged had been running for most of the 2010s.

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This developer created the fake programming language MOVA to catch out naughty recruiters, résumé padders Multiple Object Versionless Architecture is as popular now as it was two decades ago

Alan Holden, the inventor of the MOVA programming language, doesn't mention it on his resume, which isn't entirely surprising since it never really existed.

Holden, a California-based application developer, gave the language a name, which stands for Multiple Object Versionless Architecture, but not much else. There's no documentation, no standard library, nada.

As he explained in a phone interview with The Register, MOVA was intended to be vaporware. Its reason for being, back during the dot-com boom of the late 1990s, was to weed out recruiters and job applicants, who were overabundant at the time.

Continue reading
SpaceX wants to slap Starlink internet terminals on planes, trucks, and boats – but Tesla owners need not apply They're 'much too big' says Musk

Elon Musk's satellite internet constellation biz, Starlink, wants to sell its end-user station devices and services for use in vehicles, judging by a filing with the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

The filing, submitted by SpaceX, began by noting the authorisation the company has received to launch over 4,400 non-geostationary orbit satellites. More than 1,100 have been launched so far "to bring high-speed, reliable, and affordable broadband service to consumers in the United States and around the world, including areas underserved or currently unserved by existing networks."

Thus far, the company (or rather its sister company, SpaceX Services) was granted a licence for the operation of up to one million end-user stations. Although they are usually placed in fixed locations, the company now wants to be licensed to mount the devices on vehicles (Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations or "VMESs"), vessels (Earth Stations on Vessels or "ESVs") and aircraft (Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft or "ESAAs".)

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HTTP/2 200 date: Thu, 11 Mar 2021 13:00:14 GMT content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 link: ; rel=preload; as=script;,/145da36f88e80fae2e0baf1e0bb02e6933f2b2b0/javascript/_.js>; rel=preload; as=script;,/default/7a6c78cd718671c7502fc89b087c5e2ff615bd6d/scaffolding.css>; rel=preload; as=style;,/default/7a6c78cd718671c7502fc89b087c5e2ff615bd6d/design.css>; rel=preload; as=style;,/5e49edbd1875f214e0decae1e24b200066780fa8/style/fonts/arimo/arimo-700.latin.woff2>; rel=preload; as=font; crossorigin;,/5e49edbd1875f214e0decae1e24b200066780fa8/style/fonts/arimo/arimo-400.latin.woff2>; rel=preload; as=font; crossorigin; cache-control: max-age=0 expires: Thu, 11 Mar 2021 13:00:14 GMT vary: Accept-Encoding x-reg-bofh: pfy03us x-clacks-overhead: GNU Terry Pratchett, Lester Haines cf-cache-status: DYNAMIC cf-request-id: 08c2f8a8560000df8572a69000000001 expect-ct: max-age=604800, report-uri="https://report-uri.cloudflare.com/cdn-cgi/beacon/expect-ct" server: cloudflare cf-ray: 62e4f6ed5e6bdf85-MEL Apple announces €1bn Munich semiconductor R&D facility focused on wireless comms • The Register

Claims campus will be home to 'Europe's largest mobile technologies engineering team'


Apple today announced plans to invest €1bn in a new European Silicon Design Centre in Munich, Germany.

With an estimated opening date of late 2022, the 33,000m2 facility will serve as Cupertino's largest wireless communications R&D facility, with a heavy emphasis placed on developing proprietary 5G chippery.

In a blog post, Apple said the facility will house "Europe's largest mobile technologies engineering team."

It's a bold claim. Nokia's Oulu campus, which is home to its 5G radio design team, has a couple of thousand workers – although these are spread across manufacturing and research.

Still, even if it's not the greatest thing since sliced laugenbrötchen, it does allow Apple to consolidate much of its operations in the Bavarian capital, ongoing since 1981. In recent years, Apple's ranks have swelled following a spate of buyouts. The most notable is its $1bn acquisition of Intel's modem development wing in 2019, itself snatched from German semiconductor firm Infineon in 2011.

Apple already develops its iDevice and Macintosh processors in-house, with the fab work contracted out to TSMC. Despite that, it has long relied on Qualcomm for cellular modems, with the iPhone 12 series using the Snapdragon X55 5G chip. Moving this work in-house would mean less money spent externally (some estimates suggest Qualcomm obtains 11 per cent of its revenue from Apple), while giving Cupertino a level of control it otherwise wouldn't enjoy.

In 2018, Apple spent $600m on an IP and asset transfer with Dialog Semiconductor. This deal included an acquihire of some 300 workers, with two of the four teams based in Germany. Of these, one is situated in Neuaubing, a town within spitting distance of Munich. A major focus of Dialog's work has been in power management, and 5G mobile chips are notoriously power-hungry.

Dialog Semiconductor has since agreed to a $6bn acquisition with Japanese chipmaker Renesas Electronics, with the deal expected to close later this year.

Munich also serves as home to Metaio, an augmented-reality software maker acquired by Apple in 2015 for an undisclosed price. Although far removed from the world of low-level semiconductor design, Metaio does fit into Apple's long-term interest in augmented and mixed-reality computing, manifested in technologies like ARKit.

Apple announces €1bn Munich semiconductor R D facility focused on wireless comms

Brit chip designer Dialog Semi confirms 'advanced discussions' regarding purchase by Japan’s Renesas

READ MORE

This may translate into physical products in the coming decade. Earlier this month, Ming Chi-Kuo, a well-connected Apple analyst, predicted the release of several AR-centric wearables in the coming years, including a HoloLens-style headset and some eyewear reminiscent of the ill-fated Google Glass. Should this prediction come to pass, they'll almost certainly use some form of custom silicon.

Speaking of Apple's reported movements: BMW's global headquarters are also situated in Munich, where it has a manufacturing line. Since 2014, Apple has reportedly been working on a car project or, at the very least, car-related technologies like autonomous mobility and battery tech.

Like most Valley tech companies, Apple has a tendency to shower its employees with perks, including boozy after-work events and subsidised meals. While there's no word on what perks it may offer its Munich-based staffers, the company was eager to tout the environmental credentials of its upcoming facility, which will have LEED Gold certification and run entirely on renewable energy.

This development comes as the European Union attempts to strengthen its share of the global semiconductor industry. And while the lion's share of the focus has been spent on attracting contract manufacturers, like Samsung and TSMC, it's unlikely to sniff at a new R&D facility from one of the most voracious consumers of small-node semiconductors in the world. ®


State of Maine threatens to tear up Workday HR contract and request $21m refund if it cannot remedy concerns Also: SaaS provider completes acquisition of employee feedback platform Peakon

The northeastern US state of Maine is threatening to cancel a contract with enterprise SaaS provider Workday and request a $21m refund.

The project, which was due to go live in the spring of 2020, was designed to overhaul the state government's ageing HR and payroll systems.

Kelsey Goldsmith, a spokeswoman for the Department of Administration and Financial Affairs, told a local news outlet the state had employed independent experts to assess the Workday implementation. It then went to the vendor with a list of concerns.

After learning about the requests from its customers, Workday paused work on the project from 12 February. The state then sent a letter to Workday requesting a cause of action to remedy the issue within 30 days. If Workday was unable to provide a remedy, Maine would terminate the contract and seek a return of funds from Workday totalling more than $21m, the spokeswoman said.

Continue reading
License to thrill: Ahead of v13.0, the FreeBSD team talks about Linux and the completed toolchain project that changes everything 'For many ... vendors, the BSD license is very important compared to the GPL'

It's not as well known as Linux, but FreeBSD has plenty of hardcore fans. In a wide-ranging chat covering licensing, architectures including RISC-V, and a development model that's free of a "dictator", The Reg spoke to members of the project about new release features and more.

FreeBSD 13.0 has just reached release candidate 1 and is scheduled to come out at the end of March – with key new features including a complete LLVM toolchain, faster networking, and improved ZFS file system.

Major new releases come every two years or so: 12.0 was pushed out in December 2018, and 12.2 in October 2020. We spoke to kernel developer John Baldwin and Ed Maste, who is a FreeBSD committer and director of Project Development for the FreeBSD Foundation.

Continue reading
US newspaper's 'Biden will hack Russia' claim: A good way to reassure Putin you'll leave him alone Titbit for domestic consumption looks darn silly from abroad

Opinion The US government might have subtly signalled that it likely won't hack Russia this month – by telling credulous journalists it has a "clandestine" plan to, er, launch an attack against its rival before April.

The counterintuitive move came over the weekend when The New York Times published a story setting out how "over the next three weeks… a series of clandestine operations" will take place "across Russian networks" with the intention of secretly getting the attention of Vladimir Putin and his intelligence services.

Set against the backdrop of the SolarWinds and FireEye hack, and the most recent Hafnium attacks against Microsoft Exchange servers, it isn't hard to imagine presidential PR advisors wanting to give the impression that cyber warfare is their boss's top priority.

Yet the effect of those words is to warn Russia that an attack of some sort is on its way, and it'll be soon, thus putting Vlad and chums on high alert. Clearly this is not how cyber warfare is going to be waged, any more than the US Air Force might phone ISIS and warn them of a missile strike on their leader's compound next Tuesday.

Continue reading
Sign of the primes: Linux Foundation serves up free code-signing service Cryptographic software assurance backed by Google, Red Hat, Purdue U

The Linux Foundation, with the support of Google, Red Hat, and Purdue University, is launching a service called sigstore to help developers sign the code they release.

Signing code involves associating a cryptographic signature with a specific digital artifact – release files, container images, and binaries – so that the person using the software can check the code's signature to verify that the release is authentic and hasn't been altered by someone along the way.

"Sigstore enables all open source communities to sign their software and combines provenance, integrity and discoverability to create a transparent and auditable software supply chain," said Luke Hinds, security engineering lead in Red Hat's office of the CTO, in a statement.

Sigstore aims to provide that service in a way that makes the process easier for developers, so they don't have to deal with the key management issues that arise when signing code on one's own or as part of a project with multiple maintainers.

Continue reading
A Code War has replaced The Cold War. And right now we’re losing it There’s always someone to blame for bad infosec, but never a willingness to make meaningful change

Column Remember the Cold War? For me, growing up in America meant living under the permanent, intangible threat of sudden vaporisation by thermonuclear attack. It added a piquant pointlessness to everything. Ashes, ashes, all burn down.

Yet the world stubbornly refused to end. Communism collapsed, Western neoliberal democracy seemed triumphant.

Then just as we entered a phase of peace and prosperity, the internet came along and ruined everything.

It took some time; Rome was not destroyed in a day. And we should have seen it coming. A full year before the Berlin Wall came down, the Morris Internet Worm took the then-tiny internet down with an exploit drawn from weaknesses in sendmail, finger and remote shell. In 1989, Robert Tappan Morris was arrested and prosecuted under the then brand-new Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.

Continue reading
Talk about a Blue Monday: OVH outlines recovery plan as French data centres smoulder Servers affected include those used by ESA, Villarreal football club, and some misused by malware miscreants

Customers of European cloud hosting provider OVH have been told it plans to restart three data centres on its French campus in Strasbourg next week, following a massive fire on site this morning that destroyed one bit barn.

The SBG1 and SBG4 data centres are scheduled to reopen by Monday 15 March and the SBG3 DC by Friday next week. SBG2 was wiped out by the blaze but fortunately no one was hurt in the incident.

The fire caused serious disruption across European websites, with, according to Netcraft, "3.6 million websites across 464,000 distinct domains... taken offline."

Power infrastructure supplying the DCs on the site appears to have been damaged, with OVH founder and chairman Octave Klaba outlining a recovery plan that he estimated would take at least the next seven days to implement.

Continue reading
Microsoft settles £200,000+ claims against tech support scammers who ran global ripoff from cottage in Surrey Bare-faced cheek of Barewire using our trademarks, say Redmond legal eagles

A multinational tech support scam was operated out of a rural Surrey cottage for years before its Indian call centre was rumbled and gave the game away to Microsoft, the High Court has heard.

Redmond has settled a £200,000+ claim against Barewire Ltd and its directors, Neil Purnell and Toni Whittingham, after accusing them of offering "sham technical support services" that abused Microsoft's trademarked logos to pass as a genuine, legitimate enterprise.

The amount of the actual settlement is not known , although Microsoft described it as "significant."

"Members of the public have contacted Microsoft on hundreds of occasions making allegations that Barewire has engaged in deceptive business practices in connection with the supply of sham technical support services," said Microsoft in particulars of claim [PDF] filed with the High Court in December 2020, following a scam that it alleged had been running for most of the 2010s.

Continue reading
This developer created the fake programming language MOVA to catch out naughty recruiters, résumé padders Multiple Object Versionless Architecture is as popular now as it was two decades ago

Alan Holden, the inventor of the MOVA programming language, doesn't mention it on his resume, which isn't entirely surprising since it never really existed.

Holden, a California-based application developer, gave the language a name, which stands for Multiple Object Versionless Architecture, but not much else. There's no documentation, no standard library, nada.

As he explained in a phone interview with The Register, MOVA was intended to be vaporware. Its reason for being, back during the dot-com boom of the late 1990s, was to weed out recruiters and job applicants, who were overabundant at the time.

Continue reading
SpaceX wants to slap Starlink internet terminals on planes, trucks, and boats – but Tesla owners need not apply They're 'much too big' says Musk

Elon Musk's satellite internet constellation biz, Starlink, wants to sell its end-user station devices and services for use in vehicles, judging by a filing with the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

The filing, submitted by SpaceX, began by noting the authorisation the company has received to launch over 4,400 non-geostationary orbit satellites. More than 1,100 have been launched so far "to bring high-speed, reliable, and affordable broadband service to consumers in the United States and around the world, including areas underserved or currently unserved by existing networks."

Thus far, the company (or rather its sister company, SpaceX Services) was granted a licence for the operation of up to one million end-user stations. Although they are usually placed in fixed locations, the company now wants to be licensed to mount the devices on vehicles (Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations or "VMESs"), vessels (Earth Stations on Vessels or "ESVs") and aircraft (Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft or "ESAAs".)

Continue reading

Source: https://bit.ly/38wyRyL